This is the first part of the series “Busyness, Productivity and Creativity. In this serious I discuss why we have to slow down to get things done faster and better. The series consists following parts:
- Being creative and productive despite of the insane working pace
- Two organization anti-patterns: Urgency as Blame and Busyness as Heroism
- The Good Sides of Busyness – Busyness and Urgency as Heuristics for Cadence
- 120 000 Nails – Urgency and Busyness as Motivators
Puzzle analogue and slack
So, to be productive, information worker people need some slack – empty space in the calendar. Thus if you keep them busy all the time and maximize the utility, the people get less things done. What really matters is to get things done, not the amount of working hours. Sometimes, by doing more work, less work will done? Counter-intuitive, eh?
Tom DeMarco illustrate in his book “Slack” the need for slack as follows:
The puzzle A is solvable; puzzle B is impossible. Yet, in puzzle A there is approximately 11% unused space while in the puzzle B that all space is utilized. 11% of waste? The innovations dwells in the organizations ability to learn, adapt and change. The empty space needed for change and leaning isn’t waste – except in Excels!
Also e.g. Donald Reinersten underlines the importance of sufficient amount of slack in the organization in his book “Managing the Design Factory”. Reinersten does not use term ‘slack’. Instead he discussed lead time, queue length, capacity etc. In practice, his recommendations and conclusions are similar to DeMarco’s. Reinersten’s mathematical approach shows that slack makes sense also in the Excels if you measure correct things.
The third book reference: In his book “Your Brain at Work” David Rock’s book discusses this subject form the neurophysiological point of view. There are limited amount of resources in the brain. Creative thinking require a lot from your brain, the all irrelevant noise – like awareness of the deadlines that are not attainable – lower the probability of a creative insight. The most of the time the busy people just “survive” – they don’t “shine” since they don’t have time for that.
Last spring I had a very nice discussion about busyness, rush, pressure and their impact to creativity and organizational efficiency. I had just referred DeMarco’s Slack and claimed that continuous busyness and one-eyed attempts to maximize utility of people have tendency to kill creativity and ability to change. As bonus people get burnout sooner or later – or are smart enough to apply another job before that. My opponent, a smart Russian game developer replied:
[My busyness] is nothing compared to working in an advertising agency. Advertising is a job where you usually sleep at the workplace. And people usually just burn out after some time… It is strange (doesn’t fit into your [claim that Rush kills creativity and ability to change]) but creativity actually flourishes – at first, before a person burns out. In the other company – software startup – they introduced plans and procedures to avoid rush. But it lead to people becoming more passive and non-creative over time, because some air of suddenness and inspiration disappeared. So it was good for some people, who were new; there will be no sudden changes just before deadline, but not so good for those who used to act on inspiration – like being half-asleep for a week and then do the week’s work in three hours.
Embracing – was forced to restructure my argument. What follows next, is my revised answer to her excellent counter-argument. I have divided my argument into two parts:
- Why some organizations perform well and are highly creative, even if the working pace is insane?
- Why often lack of rush seems to lead passivity and lack of inspiration?
Why some organizations perform well and are highly creative, even if the working pace is insane?
These counterexamples against my argument are probably rather common, but nonetheless probably base on misconceptions or fallacies. I know that there are few opinionated studies saying something different, as my studies poses rather strong counter arguments against them.
It’s true that advertisement offices do time to time highly creative work and performs extremely well. However, you cannot deduce that they are creative because of the overly thigh schedules and busyness.
I presume, that the creativeness in advertisement agency can be explained by following four factors:
(1) Motivated, competent and experienced people. In advertisement offices the workers are often highly motivated and competent. Some of them have practiced arts (e.g. drawing) for decades and have high level of formal education on arts, while other have formal education on economics.
(2) Diversity in the working community. Diversity of working community increases amount of innovative solutions: in advertisement offices some of the workers are highly art oriented while others have financial stance and are money oriented. This kind of diversity and multitude of perspectives is good for creativity.
(3) Working environment. Working environment and way of working in itself is fruitful. Workers often enjoys of high level of autonomy and high level of trust (at least for the “high performers”). The success of a campaign depend greatly on them and thus, there is no place for indifference. In a way the results are “part of you”, and therefore you want them to be as good as possible.
(4) Short feedback loop. The feedback loop between and idea and response is relatively short. Often you see, if the idea worked within few hours, rather than within few months. In order to optimize learning, you have to shorten the feedback loop.
I argue that excessive busyness and rush make advertisement offices perform worse than they could. They have very good starting point, and then the greed spoils the most creative edge of the working community. The greed not only make they perform more poorly, it also endangers their health. According the studies I’ve referred, overly busy advertisement offices would do a lot better results and they would do even more creative campaigns, if there is enough slack in their schedules.
How much slack is needed?
I do not claim, that there must be only slack – that does not work either. Creative workers need some empty space, but only some. So, how much slack an information worker needs? I have not seen exact numbers. Probably, the proper amount of slack depends greatly on the person and on what you are doing.
According Donald Reinersten, for ordinary software development company the optimum performance is achieved with 60-80% relative utility ratio (2010, “The Principles of Product Development Flow”). If the utility score is over 80%, usually there are long queues that add no value but just costs. That is, there should be 20-40% of slack in order to make the organization perform optimally. Then again, Reinersten discusses organizational performance only, not creativity or performance of an individual person.